USING LATTICE BOARD TO HELP BASIC EIGHT (8) PUPILS (Chapter One)
Chapter one of the research report is made up of background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations, delimitations and organization of the study.
Background to the Study
Language is a very essential tool for enhancing co-existence in every human society; communication among humans of all walks of life results from the existence of language. Many people, both young and old therefore try to learn language of other people to enable them communicate effectively with such people.
Another essential use of language in every society is for the purpose of education. In most cases, learners are largely taught the use of their country’s official language among other prominent local language to enhance to enhance effective official communication as well as teaching and learning. In Ghana for instance, all subjects in the regular school curriculum are taught by means of English Language which is read, written or spoken. Every Language has four main aspects in its study: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Out of these four many educational stakeholders including literate parents in Ghana pays much attention to reading and speaking.
English Language is the official language of the country. It is the medium of instruction from the basic to the university level. It is also the language of the press. English Language has played a vital role in everyday lives of people. Since English Language is an official language as well as an international language, one reads about and understands what happens in and around the country and the world as a whole. It is for this reason that it become necessary to investigate the problem of pupils’ inability to communicate orally in English Language.
In Anyako E.P Basic six (6), it was observed that whenever a lesson was taught in class using English Language pupils did not participate at all and the fascinating thing was that pupils were unable to understand the simple instructions in English.
At Anyako in whose school this research work was carried out, most mothers are traders and the men are fishermen the few of them who are educated are involved in civil service. Anyako E.P Basic School is located on the same compound with the Anyako E.P Church (Bremen Mission) at Aborme. This school has eighteen (18) teaching and three (3) non-teaching staff with about a total of 620 pupils in the school. The population of Anyako community in which the E.P Basic School is located is about three thousand (3,000).
The fact that formal education is important is not completely recognized. This situation has inculcated in parents the idea of buying expensive clothes for their wards at the expense of reading materials which will boast pupils speaking skills in English Language.
Parents in this case are basically petty traders and fishermen who feel that, their activities are not affected by any formal educational activities. Pupils are deeply involved in their parents trading and fishing activities to the extent that, those that could have time to develop their speaking of the English Language do not have the time to do so.
Most people of Anyako are not well endowed financially become a very great challenge.
Statement of the Problem
When the researcher was posted to Anyako E.P Basic six (6) for attachment, it was realized that the pupils in the class could not understand instructions in English Language.
The researcher realized that when it was one instructional hour during the first week of the attachment which was the observation week a lesson was observed and English Language was used throughout the lesson the pupils did not actively participate, but when the language was changed to their first language (Ewe) they participated effectively and understood the lesson better than when the English Language was used.
Pupils struggle with correct pronunciation of words during reading and to pronounce contracted form of words also. This study is therefore contracted a task aimed at using oral source to improve upon the English Language speaking skills of the pupils.
Purpose of the Study
This action research was aimed at establishing factors responsible for Anyako Basic six ‘B’ pupils speaking disability and to use oral resources to enhance the pupils’ speaking skills.
To make this study to achieve its goal, the following questions were designed to guide the researcher.
What are the causes of the inability of Primary six pupils of Anyako E.P Basic School to express themselves in English?
Which oral resources and strategies that can be adopted to improve upon Anyako E.P Basic six speaking skills in English?
Significance of the Study
This study, when effectively used will contribute to the effective teaching and learning in the following ways;
Firstly, it will help the pupils to improve upon their speaking ability which will encourage them to involve themselves in teaching and learning activities.
Also, it will help educational authorities to make policies that will cause pupils to speak English always thereby, helping teachers to always deliver their lesson in English.
Again, it will help parents to cultivate the habit of helping their wards to develop interest in speaking. This will be achieved when parents communicate with their wards in English.
Absenteeism and truancy were some of the problems encountered during the research. Pupils were not attending school regularly, thus making it difficult for the researcher to gather accurate information.
There is some form of cyclical pattern of school attendance, it was difficult for me to study the pupils and design various strategies and activities to solve this problem.
Since the researcher equally taught the pupils, the pupils were afraid the researcher may use their responses against them so they provided responses to cover themselves.
As a result of the nature of the course being pursued, this research work though meant to improve upon the English Language speaking skills of class 6 ‘B’ pupils of Anyako E.P Basic School. Its findings may not be perfectly to all basic six ‘B’ pupils since it was only carried out at Anyako E.P Basic School.
Again, owing to some pupils’ irregularities in their attendance of school, the research could only be carried at among the portion of learners who were not found of absenteeism.
Organization of the Study
This research work has been carefully and systematically arranged. It is made up of five main chapters. The first chapter deals with the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research question, significant of the study, limitation and delimitation of the study. The chapter two deals with the review of related literature that is a review of what has been written already by other authorities that are related to the problem under discussion.
Methodology which describes the research design as well as the methods used to collect the data analyzed is found in chapter three.
The fourth chapter covers the results of the study, findings and the discussion, discussion of pertinent issues that came up in the data, description of the problems which were identified and finally the general outcome of the interventions.
The last chapter contains overview of research findings, summary of key findings, conclusions and recommendations. Finally areas for further and future research are suggested in this chapter five.