# Helping Students in Mathematics: Chapter Three

**CHAPTER THREE**

**METHODOLOGY**

This is the methodology aspect of the action research work. It describes the research design and the procedures employed in obtaining data for the study.

**Research Design**

The type of research design the researcher used was action research. According to Corey (1953), action research is the research undertaken by practice. The researcher used action research because; it deals with problems that pertain to a specific geographical area.

**Population and sample selection**

**Population**

According to Koul (1977), the population of research refers to any collection of specified group of human beings or non-human entities such as objects, educational institutions, geographical areas, and the entire student body in educational institutions etc.

It also simply referred to as the total number of people who qualified to be used for the research. The population of this research comprises all the 26 pupils in basic seven 7 of Avenorpeme R/C School. It consists of 13 girls and 13 boys.

**Sample**

This refers to the number of respondent who have been selected from the population to be used for the actual research.

Out of the population size of 26, the researcher selected 16 pupils to constitute the sample for the study. The 16 pupils were selected using purposive sampling.

The researcher specifies the characteristics of the population of interest and then tries to locate individuals who have those characteristics in views of the above, the researcher used purposive sampling so as to hand pick 16 pupils for the study. At the end 10 girls and 6 boys were picked to become the sample of the study.

Development of Research Instrument

Base on the aspect of mathematics being researched into, the researcher thought it wise to use observation, interview and test as means of generating information for the research.

**Interview**

**Agbetorwoka and Mishiwo**

(Unpublished) wrote that an interview is any person to person interaction between two or more individuals with a specific purpose in mind. This technique was used to the reasons below.

Pupils freely and willingly express themselves in their native language that is (L1) better than the English language (L2).

It also gives the researcher the opportunity to interact with the pupils freely so as to know them better and get the needed information. The researcher chose the interview technique for the data collection based on the above reasons.

**Observation**

This is another instrument the researcher used in gathering information about the research problem, “The sum of interior angles of a triangle adds up to 180°”. The researcher used this method because it is the direct method of collecting data or information and is the best way of studying human behaviour. Also data collection is very accurate in nature and reliable.

**Test**

Test is one of the ways through which first-hand information can be gotten about pupils’ performance in a subject. It is used by the researcher because it is quick and easy to score, by hand or electronically.

**Pre – Intervention**

The researcher administered a pre – test to ascertain the facts on the problem identified. After the pre – test on the topic “sum of interior angles of a triangle” out of 16 that took part in the test, only 4 pupils passed. That is, they scored above average. The table below shows pupils’ pre – test results.

From the table 1, it could be seen that 7 pupils representing 43.75% scored between 1 — 2 out of the 10 marks. 5 pupils representing 31.25% scored between 3 — 4 out of 10 marks, 4 pupils representing 25% scored between 5 — 6 marks of 10. None of the pupils scored above 6 marks. The information from table 1 shows that the pupils performed very poorly in the test. As much as 80% of them scoring less than the average mark of 5 — 6 and more than half of the class scored 2 out of 10 marks.

**Intervention Design and Implementation**

Considering the results from the observation, interview and pre – test the researcher decided to break the lesson down into bits and teach using the Teaching and Learning Materials (TLMs) (model triangle) to solve the perceived problem. This help make the lesson real practical, manipulative and interesting to the pupils.

Below are some of the Teaching and Learning Materials (TLMs) resources materials used.

Teaching and Learning Materials (TLMs)

Manila card, and model triangle.

Blade.

A pair of compasses.

A pair of scissors.

Week One, Day One, Activity One:

The use of model triangle to insist pupils to answer questions correctly on the interior angle of triangle. Pupils were given manila card, blade, scissors, and rule each to draw a triangle on a manila card given to them by the teacher.

Teacher demonstrate to pupils using a pair of compasses, rule and pencil to mark out the 3 angles as shown below.

Since my mentor let pupils understand that angles on straight line add up to 180° in his previous lessons, pupils were able to comprehend that the base on which the cut out were arranged also form a straight line. From this the pupils realized and concluded that the cut out X, Y and Z when arranged on a straight line and their sum should add up to 180°. Therefore X° + Y° + Z° = 180°.

Activity Two:

Discuss with pupils that the sum of the 3 interior angles in the triangle forms a line. Since the sum of angles on a straight line add up to 180o, hence the sum of interior angles of a triangle is 180o as demonstrated.

Week Three, Day One, Activity One:

Group pupils into 3 groups and give them the model triangle. Ask pupils to take off the cut out angles on the triangle and arrange them on a straight line and compare it to the first one done using manila card if they are the same.

Pupils arrange the cut out model angles on a straight line as teacher go round and see if every pupil is participating.

Discuss with pupils that since the arrangements are the same,

then everybody should now understand that the sum of interior angles add up to 180⁰.

**Activity Two:**

Put problem on the board and ask pupils to solve it. Go round and check if everybody is doing an individual work.

Week Three, Day One, Activity One:

Group pupils into 3 groups and give them the model triangle. Ask pupils to take off the cut out angles on the triangle and arrange them on a straight line and compare it to the first one done using manila card if they are the same.

Pupils arrange the cut out model angles on a straight line as teacher go round and see if every pupil is participating.

Discuss with pupils that since the arrangements are the same, then everybody should now understand that the sum of interior angles add up to 180⁰.

Activity Two:

Put problem on the board and ask pupils to solve it. Go round and check if everybody is doing an individual work.

Post – Intervention

This was made through observation of pupils’ reaction during the lesson delivery up to the evaluation stage of the lesson. It was realized that the objective set has been achieved. The researcher conducted test for pupils using the evaluation questions and moved round to make sure that every pupil did individual work. The result of the post-intervention is shown in chapter four (4) the post-test question marking scheme and sample of marks obtained are shown in the appendix.

**SOURCE: Talkingdrum.com.gh**